Parasitic arthritis is an endemic disease

Introduction: parasitic arthritis is a local disease in developed countries and many developing countries. The clinical manifestations are different. After infection with parasites, some patients have no symptoms, others have many clinical manifestations. The allergic symptoms of the disease include pain, lumps, inflammation of the ear, and arthritis.
Parasite arthritis is a local disease that can cause skeletal deformity

  1. This disease is a local disease
    This disease is a local disease, and the patient was not obviously at the beginning. Plasmodium induced arthritis and osteoarthritis are not common in clinic.
  2. Can cause bone lesions
    It can cause damage to bone tissue, joints and bone marrow, hinder the normal development of bones, or cause fetal bone deformity. Infection of parasitic bacteria can cause joint damage. Arthritis can be caused by parasites living in muscles around the joint, or by parasites’ metabolites or immune responses.
  3. Etiology
    Osteoarthritis caused by parasite infection is very rare in clinic. So far, at least 20 parasites can directly or indirectly destroy human bones and joint systems. It can cause damage to bone tissue, joints and bone marrow, and can also hinder the normal development of bones.
    02
    Parasitic arthritis, in the incubation period, may be asymptomatic for a long time, and may have pain in the limited period
    The disease is divided into four types clinically. Osteococcosis is a disease that causes the disease of small echinococcosis by parasitism of the cercariae in the bone, and its symptoms are painless swelling. The disease is slow, and it is often seen in children.
  4. Incubation period
    Larva grows slowly in bone, and has no symptoms for a long time. A few cases may have slight pain.
  5. Limitation period
    When the condition worsens, pain, numbness, limp, muscle atrophy of the limbs will occur.
  6. Lymphadenopathy can be caused by infection
    Osteoarthritis may occur because of filariasis or Malay. Filariasis can cause lymph nodes to swell. Because of the decrease of resistance, bacteria are easy to invade, causing bacterial infection in local tissues, which may cause peritonitis or peritonitis. In addition, chyloarthritis is also a common disease of filariasis, which can be seen in chylous fluid at the joint, and is common in knee joint.
  7. Patients will have limited activity, swelling, pain and fever
    The second is the ankle, which is not affected. It is often unilateral. Generally speaking, it is a benign process, with short duration and no pain and swelling of joints. Sometimes acute, knee joint fluid infiltration, swelling, pain, fever, limited activity, high fever. It can be relieved in 1-2 weeks, and it can be turned into chronic arthritis after recurrence.
    The allergic symptoms of the disease include pain, lumps, inflammation of the ear, arthritis. Among these diseases, osteoarthritis is the most common disease, that is, single joint, especially exposed joints such as wrist and ankle, but pubic Union and rib may occur simultaneously. The symptoms were mainly pain and swelling.
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    Parasitic arthritis, diagnosis can be based on the patient’s epidemiology and laboratory results
  8. Pathophysiology
    A parasite that invades the skeletal system widely; Echinococcosis in the bone, leading to osteoporosis and echinococcosis
  9. Diagnostic methods
    The diagnosis of echinococcosis can be determined by combining epidemiological data, contact history, clinical manifestations, X-ray examination and other auxiliary examinations. The incidence of arthritis in the cauda equina is mainly related to the incidence rate, history of contact, clinical manifestations and X-ray.
  10. Laboratory inspection method
    The positive reaction was found in the skin test of hydatid infection (cassony method). Serological tests include hydatid specific antibodies and circulating antigen tests. Indirect hemagglutination test, latex agglutination test, enzyme linked immunosorbent test (ELISA) are all the detection methods. Blood smear examination showed that some patients had filariasis at night. The synovial fluid was examined with cream, sterility and hyperlipidemia.
  11. Other inspection methods
    The X-ray examination of filariasis was found in the local periosteum thickening, periostitis and cortex thickening. The degree of destruction of bone cortex is different because of the invasion of periosteum and bone to form new periosteum bone. Lymphangiography showed obstruction of lymph nodes and varices.
    04
    Parasite arthritis needs to be distinguished from chondrosarcoma, and the complications have obvious neurological symptoms
  12. Differential diagnosis
    Coccidiosis of bone spinous is a rare disease. It needs to be different from giant cell tumor, fibrocystic osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma and so on. The spinal focus should be different from tuberculosis and benign tumor. It should be different from rheumatoid arthritis. Need to distinguish from osteoarthritis tuberculosis, rheumatoid arthritis, suppurative arthritis.
  13. Complications
    Echinococcosis, spinal cord and sacrum cyst can compress spinal cord or cauda equina nerve, causing obvious nerve symptoms, signs, and even paraplegia. Later stage can lead to secondary chronic suppurative osteomyelitis. When the joint is involved, it can cause pathological dislocation. Filariasis infection with swelling of rubber. Secondary bacterial infection, repeated attacks can cause periostitis or periostitis. The main symptoms of the late stage of arthritis of Dendrolimus punctatus are the disorder of joint function, deformity and rigidity.
  14. Treatment
    (1) The treatment of Echinococcus granulosus
    The principle of treatment is to completely remove the diseased bone, but it is unlikely. Scraping and grafting bone is a common method, and albendazole is also a common method.
    (2) Filariasis
    Since the quasi Dirofilaria imitis is a self limiting disease, it is rare in human beings. Filariasis larvae infected with such animals will not develop into adults in human body, but those who cannot develop normally will also be pathogenic. Respiratory tract infection is a common disease in clinic. Sometimes, patients may have joint pain and lower extremity joint self limiting arthritis. The disease is a self limiting disease and does not require special treatment.
    (3) Treatment of Dendrolimus punctatus
    Can use adrenal cortical hormone, anti allergy drug, chlorophenamine, aspirin, etc. These drugs are commonly used in daily life to eliminate inflammation and pain, can be used to protect the function of joints. The long-term fistula, sinus and osteopathy can be treated with sinus resection and debridement. The patients with progressive ankylosis can be treated with joint replacement.
  15. Prognosis
    The prognosis depends on the location and scope of involvement. There will be pelvic and spinal lesions, and the prognosis is poor. After treatment, Dendrolimus punctatus rarely recurred, but it is difficult for patients with joint deformity or dysfunction to recover completely.
  16. Prevention methods
    The patients were treated comprehensively, the source of infection was removed and the intermediate host was removed. The host should be removed from the epidemic area. The publicity of environmental health in pastoral areas is widely carried out. Good health habits should be developed in early childhood to avoid contact with sick animals.

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