We “see” the virus, but don’t know where or how it came from

Since the end of 2019, the seventh human coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 (Novel Coronavirus), has infected more than 80 million people worldwide and killed more than 1.77 million people.
At the beginning of the outbreak, even trained virologists could not immediately determine the situation, and for a period of time the shadow of “unexplained pneumonia” hung over human society.

In the face of such a new outbreak of infectious diseases, scientists lead the charge, shoulder the responsibility to find out the “real culprit”.
“Competent scientists are needed to make judgments, draw conclusions and report them to the relevant authorities.”
In an interview with the Paper (www.thepaper.cn), a Chinese virologist stressed that the availability of competent and responsible scientists is particularly important in the early stages of the epidemic.

This is not an easy thing to do.
In April 2020 after the outbreak, Susan R. Weiss, an American microbiologist who has been researching coronavirus for 40 years, published an article in the American Journal of Experimental Medicine (JEM), laments that when she first entered the field of coronavirus, there were far fewer coronavirus researchers than there are now.

In the fall of 1980, the first international conference on coronavirus was held in Wurzburg, Germany, and Weiss was invited to the conference, which was attended by about 60 people, almost all global researchers in the field at the time.
“Every pandemic like SARS or COVID-19 pushes researchers into the field.
And as the virus disappears, the number of researchers decreases.
There are still many unknowns about human coronavirus in the scientific community.”

Compared with SARS (Severe acute respiratory Syndrome) in 2003, the time it takes for scientists to find the culprit is much shorter this time.
In the first few days of January this year, the Research team in China created a partial or complete novel Coronavirus genome sequence by sequencing bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples from patients.
To inform the World Health Organization of the identification results on 9 January;
On January 12, China registered the novel Coronavirus genome sequence information in the global influenza shared database, and notified the international community of the situation of genome virus data.

Wu Zunyou, chief epidemiologist with the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, said in November 2020 that in the early days of the COVID-19 outbreak, China identified the pathogen in only seven days and developed diagnostic reagents in two days, setting a record for the shortest time for humans to understand a new infectious disease.

Wu zunyou believes that the genetic sequence of the virus is the most core “neck clamping” technology for the treatment and prevention and control of the epidemic.
After Defining the coronavirus gene sequence, China did not apply for patent protection, but shared it with the whole world for free. “This is a public product that China provides to the whole world for free, and it is also China’s greatest contribution to the prevention and control of NOVEL CORonavirus.

In addition to deciphering the genome sequence of the virus, scientists have described the pathogen under an electron microscope.
Like several other known human coronaviruses, this enveloped RNA virus has a special Spike Protien protein in its envelope that makes it look like a “crown,” hence its name.

The current scientific understanding is that coronaviruses belong to the order neviridae, the family Coronaviruses and the genus Coronaviruses. They are enveloped normal single-stranded RNA viruses with a diameter of 80-120 nanometers and about 30,000 bases. Their genetic material is the largest among known RNA viruses.
Novel Coronavirus is a member of the coronavirus genus, belonging to a subgenus Sarbecovirus.

1965 Scientists isolated the first human coronavirus.
Until SARS, the coronavirus was designed to cause mild flu-like symptoms in humans.
But SARS-COV, MERS-CoV and, in this case, SARS-COV-2 pose a serious threat to humans.

A year after the outbreak spread across the globe, scientific forces around the world have rallied, but many mysteries remain to be solved.
Beyond traditional coping mechanisms, including social distancing, humans have not yet grasped the tools to destroy new crowns.

Where did the virus come from?
This could be the first to cause confusion and the hardest to solve.

Photo: Qu Jiuhui, distinguished Professor of School of Environment, Tsinghua University, researcher of Ecological Environment Research Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, academician of Chinese Academy of Engineering, et al., “Natural Host — Environmental Media — Human: A New Potential Pathway of COVID-19 Outbreak”.
As of December 29, the latest data showed that more than 81.19 million people worldwide had been diagnosed with novel Coronavirus infection, and more than 1.772 million of them died.

The underlying data suggest that novel Coronavirus is fully adapted to humans.
In comparison, sarS-COV and MERs-CoV did not cause a global pandemic.
Mers-cov, in particular, has mostly been caused by the virus originating from camels in the Arabian Peninsula and spreading only sporadically from person to person.

As mentioned earlier, the coronavirus’s “crown” is its special label, and functionally, spike proteins are responsible for binding to the receptor to invade host cells, with both being likened to “keys” and “locks”, respectively.
It is therefore seen as an important target for drug development.

During infection, S protein is cleaved by host proteases (such as TMPRSS2) into N-terminal S1 subunit and C-terminal S2 subunit, which mediate receptor binding and membrane fusion respectively.
Among them, S1 contains the N-terminal domain (NTD) and the receptor-binding domain (RBD), which are crucial in determining tissue tropism and host scope.

RBD binds to human receptor ACE2 (angiotensin converting enzyme 2) during virus invasion.
The function of NTD was not previously clear, but a study published in June by Chen Wei, a member of the Academy of Military Medical Sciences, and Zhou Qiang Laboratory of West Lake University, among others, indicated that NTD could serve as a key epitome of antibody neutralization and be a promising target for therapeutic monoclonal antibodies against the new crown.

It is worth noting that by the time humans were aware of the virulent nature of the virus, it was already “at home” in humans, suggesting that its “key” matches very well, in what is known as “host adaptation”.

According to a Harvard Medical School paper published in April in Science, a top academic journal, the fatality rate for COVID-19 is statistically significantly higher than that for seasonal influenza, but lower than the two closely related coronavirus strains sarS-COV and Mers-CoV.
In addition, there is also evidence that novel Coronavirus is more contagious than SARS-CoV and MERs-CoV, and that an individual can transmit avirus while asymptomatic or in the incubation period before symptoms appear.

Surging news (www.thepaper.cn) reporter attended a conference in November, a researcher at the Chinese academy of agricultural sciences, Harbin veterinary research institute, member of national avian influenza reference laboratory director Chen mentioned: in general the virus spread from animals to humans need time to adapt to, and SARS – CoV – 2 after the onset of the transmitted particularly strong, this is likely to be its biggest characteristics.

Preliminary analysis showed that the similarity between novel Coronavirus and SARS-COV was 79% on nucleotide level.
However, novel Coronavirus and SARS-COV showed only 72% nucleotide sequence similarity in spike proteins.
The similarity between RaTG13 and novel Coronavirus samples collected in 2013 in Yunnan, China, by Shi Zhengli, researcher of Wuhan Institute of Viruses, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and others, was 96% in nucleotide sequence.

Despite this sequence similarity, novel Coronavirus and RaTG13 differ in many key genomic features.
One of the most important is that novel Coronavirus contains a multi-base (furin) restriction site insertion (PRRA residue) at the junction of S protein S1 and S2 subunits.

This insertion may have increased the infectivity of the virus, which is not present in other related -coronavirus species.
Similar polybase insertions have been found in other human coronaviruses, including HCOV-HKU1, and in highly pathogenic strains of avian influenza viruses.
It is worth noting that a new bat coronavirus (RmYN02) was discovered in 2019 in feces samples collected from Horseshit horsesus Malay in Yunnan by Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Independent insertion of PAA amino acid at S1/S2 cleavage site was also observed in this virus.

The scientists analyzed that these insertion events reflect the ongoing natural evolution of the coronavirus.
Although RmYN02 was quite different from novel Coronavirus in terms of spike proteins (sequence similarity approximately 72%), it was most closely related to the longest coding gene to 1AB (nucleotide sequence similarity approximately 97%).
And although SARS-Cov and Mers-Cov are closely related to novel Coronavirus and are both considered to have bat hosts, the biological differences between these viruses are striking.

Novel Coronavirus is significantly more infectious, which makes it very different from the epidemiological dynamics of SARS-COV and MERs-CoV.
Thus, for the scientific community, the identification of virological characteristics that support this transmissibility is clearly a priority.

Such transmissibility has alarmed scientists about the relatively virulent respiratory pathogen’s unusual ability to cross species boundaries.
A Chinese virologist told thepaper (www.thepaper.cn) that the virus has evolved in an intermediate host, and had evolved key mutations in the “secret transmission” stage among people as early as December 2019.

In March 2020, the Chinese academy of medical sciences, Peking union medical college hospital, Chinese center for disease control and prevention, the university of California, Los Angeles, Pittsburgh university, hunan university researchers in five partners blockbuster papers published, display will be coronavirus in spike protein (S) between S1 and S2 domain structure unique insert (PRRA) four amino acids, it may be a Flynn (Fruin) or TMPRSS2 (2) transmembrane serine protease enzyme loci.
Previous studies have suggested that coronaviruses may undergo protease lysis, which triggers virus-cell membrane fusion.
This flexibility in initiating and triggering fusion mechanisms greatly regulates the pathogenicity and tendency of different coronaviruses.

The paper suggests that the potential recombination of RBD and the presence of a unique Flynn irus cleavage site could explain the novel Coronavirus infectious increase significantly.

“Characteristics of SARS-COV-2 and COVID-19” by Shi Zhengli et al.
The Hunters are still on the hunt: From the bat?
Who was the “civet” novel Coronavirus first introduced into human society?
How did they evolve before that?
In all the history of human infectious diseases, not all pathogens were eventually traced back to success.

Reveal the H5N1 and H7N9 avian flu virus spread across a kind of the molecular mechanisms of microbial institute of Chinese Academy of Sciences applied a surge in news (www.thepaper.cn) reporter, said in an interview will be coronavirus where actually came from is not an easy question, “is actually the virus source not only simple in a study, it requires combining epidemiological, and epidemiological evidence is will annihilate in history, at some stage may be evidence of some biological samples, after half a year or more, the evidence could not continue to exist.”

At the end of October, held in wuhan, hubei Shi Zhengli the 15th international conference on genomics (ICG – 15) delivered a keynote speech, she talked about traceability problem, although the wuhan early most of the patients with a history of south China seafood market access, and in the market environment of samples detected virus RNA, however its team in the market for frozen meat and surrounding farmed animals were not found in the detection of viral RNA.

According to Shi, the available evidence only indicates that human-to-human transmission of the virus occurred in the seafood markets in southern China, but it may not be the source of the epidemic from animal to human.
Shi zhengli told thepaper (www.thepaper.cn) during the above meeting that her team has made no progress in tracing the source of the virus.

Shi is known as the “Batwoman” and her team was the source of China’s SARS virus.
In 2017, after 13 years of searching and research, Shi zhengli and others finally found all the genetic components of THE SARS virus in bats in a small cave in Kunming, Yunnan province, basically completing the tracing work of the SARS virus.

In the outbreak, the Chinese Academy of Sciences researcher at the Pasteur institute in Shanghai Hao Pei and military medical research national emergency prevention and control engineering research center for drug researcher Zhong Wu, molecular plant scientific excellence innovation center, a researcher at the Chinese Academy of Sciences team li and others, and like those led by Shi Zhengli team, respectively in January 21 and 23 January announced research conclusion, both reveals will be coronavirus and the correlation between the bats.
This is the earliest information about the source of the virus.

However, faced with the problem of tracing the virus from novel Coronavirus, the more intractable problem for scientists is that the intermediate host link is still missing.
During the SARS period, civets were the intermediate host.
Dromedaries played this role in the MERS outbreak.
Although a team of researchers now believe that pangolins may be intermediate hosts;
In addition, a team of researchers found that ferrets, cats and other animals are also susceptible to SARS-COV-2.
But who exactly is the novel Coronavirus “Civet”?
It’s all in speculation.

An article in The Lancet Infectious Diseases in September focused on The origins of SARS-COV-2.
“Tracking bats gives you only partial information, and the viruses you’re studying may or may not get the further mutations they need to spread in humans.”
“There’s almost always an intermediate host involved,” explains Stanley Perlman, a professor of microbiology and immunology at the University of Iowa in the United States. “If you don’t know what the intermediate host is and what’s going to happen to the virus, it’s hard to make any predictions.”

But David Robertson, director of bioinformatics at the Medical Research Council’s Centre for Viruses at the University of Glasgow, United Kingdom, said it was too early to rule out direct bat-to-human transmission.

In late July, Robertson et al published a paper online in Nature Microbiology, in which they used genomic data on Sarbecoviruses and three methods to identify sarS-COV-2 viral domains that had not been reassembled and could be used to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the virus.
All the methods showed that RaTG13 and SARS-COV-2 possessed a common single ancestral line. Sars-cov-2 appeared to be differentiated from related bat viruses in 1948, 1969 and 1982, respectively.

The finding suggests that the virus lineage that produced SARS-COV-2 may have been circulating in bats for decades.
Robertson et al. suggest that the long differentiation time of SARS-COV-2 indicates the possible existence of an unsampled and potentially contagious bat virus lineage derived from genetic sites adapted to contact residues in ancestral SARS-COV-2 RBD humans.
But better sampling is needed to assess this.

They conclude that the existing diversity and dynamic processes of viral recombination in the bat virus lineage demonstrate how difficult it is to identify viruses with the potential to cause major human outbreaks in advance.

In a novel Coronavirus review published in October, Shi Zhengli et al pointed out that our understanding of the origin of SARS-COV-2 animals is far from complete, and the host of the virus has not been clearly confirmed.
It is not clear whether SARS-COV-2 is transmitted to humans through an intermediate host, or which animals may act as an intermediate host.

The rumor is fading and the truth is still to be found

The virus is a long way from its source, but conspiracy theories soon hit.

Around February 2020, comments such as “laboratory virus leakage” and “artificial creation of new viruses” were gradually fermented on the Internet, and the shadow began to fall on some scientists.
Peter Daszak, a disease ecologist at the nonprofit EcoHealth Alliance, told Science that every time a new disease or virus emerges, there are “conspiracy theories” like lab leaks or bioengineered manufacturing. “It’s a shame!”
Shi Zhengli even had to respond in her circle of friends, “Novel Coronavirus 2019 is a punishment from nature for human uncivilized life habits. I Shi Zhengli guarantee my life and have nothing to do with lab.”

On December 24, When Party secretary Wang Xianguang and vice president Huang Chaolin of Wuhan Jinyantan Hospital visited the Institute of Virology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shi zhengli still expressed her excitement.
She said that when Faced with pneumonia of unknown cause, Jinyintan Hospital sent the hard-won seven pieces of alveolar lavage fluid to The Wuhan Virus Center at the first time, which showed its full trust in us.
Without this trust, there would be no wuhan virus institute a series of scientific and technological achievements against the epidemic.
“In the follow-up research work, Wuhan Virology Institute has also encountered difficulties and setbacks, but it has always been firm in its original intention and determination to make contributions to the fight against the epidemic with science and technology.”

In the face of a lot of speculation at that time, a biologist interviewed by thepaper.cn said, “My view is based on reasonable speculation and academic research based on existing data. If there is, there is; if there is no, there is no. Scientific research cannot be based on assumptions”.

Xue Yu, professor of biomedical Engineering, School of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, said directly in an interview with Thepaper.cn (www.thepaper.cn) that he did not think the novel Coronavirus came from a laboratory.
Xue also emphasized that if a novel Coronavirus originated from a RaTG13 laboratory leak, the leak should have occurred at least 6.6 years ago, and the field must be able to find a large number of virus strains that are between a Coronavirus and RaTG13 and have a higher degree of similarity to a Coronavirus.

It has also been suggested that the rate of virus mutation may be accelerated under laboratory culture conditions.
Xue stressed to Thepaper.cn, “As for the mutation rate of novel Coronavirus, it has been strictly estimated that the mutation rate of novel Coronavirus is about 1/3 that of the mutation rate I used, so I have tried to overestimate the mutation rate of novel coronavirus as much as possible to prevent others from making an issue in this place.”

“It should be noted that the current analysis shows that the evolution rate of virus from the novel Coronavirus is relatively low. Some researchers estimated the mutation rate of virus from the novel Coronavirus to be 2.067×10^-4 bases/site/year. After conversion, it would be about 6 base mutations per year in the whole genome, which is far lower than the mutation rate I assumed.
In addition, some scholars used different models and estimated the mutation rate of novel Coronavirus to be about 0.42 x 10^-3-1.89 x 10^-3, which was smaller than that of the virus I used.
Therefore, we estimate that novel Coronavirus will mutate about 90 base sites per year, which can be considered as the upper limit.

Yan Xiang, tenancies professor of microbiology and immunology at the University of Texas At SAN Antonio Medical Center, United States, also noted in a commentary that RaTG13 and Novel Coronavirus may have had a common ancestor 25 to 65 years ago, combined with assumed mutation rate estimates from other coronaviruses.

Xiang also pointed out in his commentary that RaTG13 was detected by Shi Zhengli and his team in bats in Yunnan province a few years ago, but they did not have a live virus or full sequence of RaTG13 before that.
In his opinion, the novel Coronavirus is a new virus that has never been seen before, and there is no living virus RaTG13 bat coronavirus that is closest to the coronavirus in the laboratory at present. It is grounless to say that the virus from the novel Coronavirus was leaked from the laboratory.

It is worth noting that one of the “bases” on which conspiracy theorists built their laboratories was a paper co-published in Nature Medicine in November 2015.
In this paper, the team adapted the bat coronavirus SHC014 strain, which is closest in sequence to the SARS coronavirus, for a series of studies.
Using a reverse genetic system for SARS coronavirus, the team generated and identified a murine chimeric virus expressing SHC014 spike protein in the sarS-coronavirus skeleton.
Reverse genetics is a genetic approach to determine the function of a gene by site-directed mutations and studying its phenotype.

In fact, Vineet D. Menachery, a professor of microbiology and immunology at the University of Texas Medical Branch, is the first author of the paper. He is responsible for designing, coordinating and executing the experiment, as well as analyzing and writing the manuscript. The experiment is also designed and implemented in the laboratory of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Shi Zhengli ranks 14th among the 15 authors of this paper and is not the corresponding author.

Current virus designed by the artificial modification of the rumors, the rutgers university molecular biologist, tile waxman, institute of microbiology lab director Richard Ebright in surging news (www.thepaper.cn) reporter interview made it clear that opposition, “the virus has complete genome sequencing, no reliable evidence that the virus is the artificial design.”

In addition to scientists voice against The laboratory virus leakage “, The end of February, by an international team of six scientists jointly published an article on The virological.org website will be coronavirus Origin related articles “The Proximal Origin of SARS – CoV – 2”, The article has not yet been formally published at The time, but has been The industry known as The most professional, “The strongest technical analysis”.

Reporters from the Paper (www.thepaper.cn) were the first to report on thepaper, which is considered the “strongest technical analysis” in the industry.
Virus into the famous chemist America kerry’s institute for immunology and microbiology department Kristian g. Andersen (for the first time and the corresponding author), an associate professor, university of Edinburgh institute of evolutionary biology, Andrew Rambaut, Columbia University mailman school of public health, director of the center for infection and immunity, w. Ian Lipkin (one of the most famous virus hunters), the university of Sydney Marie bashir infectious diseases and biological safety institute professor Edward C.
Holmes and Robert F. Garry, professor of microbiology and immunology, Tulane University School of Medicine, United States, “unravels” the novel Coronavirus. They jointly refute the conspiracy theory and show through rigorous analysis that “RNA does not lie”.

Strongest in The “technical analysis” published a few days before, The top international medical journal The Lancet, The Lancet published an article on communication online, 27 from eight countries well-known public health scientists signed statement: support for China’s fight will be coronavirus disease (COVID – 19) 2019 outbreak of scientific research, public health and medical workers.

The statement pointed to various conspiracy theories that emerged during the outbreak.
The 27 scientists noted that the rapid, open and transparent sharing of data in this outbreak is now threatened by rumors and misinformation about the disease’s origins.
“We hereby join in strongly condemning the conspiracy theory that the Novel Coronavirus disease COVID-19 is not of natural origin.”

It is worth noting that on November 17, Shi zhengli’s team also formally submitted to Nature the detailed source of RaTG13, a virus that was sampled from a mine in Guanguan Town, Mojiang County, Yunnan Province, between 2012 and 2015.
This addition is in response to a paper the team published in Nature in early February, which reports that novel Coronavirus came from bats and also confirms that the virus entered the cell the same way that the SARS coronavirus did, through its ACE2 cell receptor.
The paper was also the first to be published in Nature.

Novel Coronavirus has been active in humans for more than a year, and the rumor gradually cooled.
But up to now, the origin of the new crown is still an open question.

Virus back on some of the latest information from the nature at the end of November issued a press release, a Cambodian team in a refrigerator storage of chrysanthemum found a bat and will be coronavirus relatives coronavirus, the virus was discovered in 2010 in northern Cambodia capture Shamel chrysanthemum bat (Rhinolophus shameli).
However, the full genome of the virus has not been obtained so far.

Meanwhile, a team of researchers in Japan reported the discovery of another related coronavirus in frozen bat droppings.
The virus, named RC-O319, was found in a small Rhinolophus Cornutus captured in 2013 and matched 81.47% of the sarS-CoV-2 genome sequence, according to a study published by the research team in the November 2 issue of “Emerging Infectious Diseases.”

But that information is still a long way from final conclusions.
In theory, a new virus found in an animal host must have at least 99 percent resemblance to a novel Coronavirus before it can be proved to be a direct ancestor.

alert! The mutant virus has spread to more than 10 countries

According to statistics, novel Coronavirus infected patients have been found in more than ten countries.

According to the real-time statistics of the World Health Organization (WHO), as of 2:22 PM on The 27th, Beijing time on the 27th, the total number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 has risen to 7,9232,555, with 434,779 more confirmed cases than the previous day. The total number of deaths has reached 17,54,493, with 7,393 new deaths.

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Novel Coronavirus infection found in more countries

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CCTV financial “The first Time” column video

On July 27, more countries announced confirmed cases of novel Coronavirus infection in their own countries.

The Local government of The Portuguese island of Madeira on Wednesday confirmed that “tourists from the UK have been infected with the mutated strain of the virus found in the UK”, although it did not specify how many confirmed cases there were.

The Norwegian Public Health Department also confirmed that two tourists who had arrived from The UK earlier this month were infected with a novel coronavirus. The virus was found to have the same genetic sequence as the virus that is spreading rapidly in the UK.
Medical workers are investigating close contacts of the two patients.

Jordan’s Ministry of Health announced on the same day that a Jordanian couple travelling to The UK on The 19th of This month were confirmed to be infected with the mutated virus. They were diagnosed after returning to Jordan and had been quarantined.
According to statistics, novel Coronavirus infected patients have been found in more than ten countries.

Is Russian vaccine effective against the mutated virus? Russian Deputy PRIME Minister: No doubt

According to a report by Sputnik 28, regarding the question whether novel Coronavirus novel coronavirus vaccine made in Russia is effective, Russian Deputy Prime Minister Nikolai Golikova recently gave the answer “yes” and stressed that there is no doubt about it.

File photo: Satellite-V, the first COVID-19 vaccine registered in Russia.
Photo by China News Service reporter Wang Xiujun

A new variant of the novel coronavirus, announced in the UK, may be 70 per cent more transmissible than the original virus.

In response to the new mutation, Golikova said, “We are studying this mutation very carefully now, because the British side published the genome.”

Asked if the COVID-19 vaccine developed in Russia was effective against the strain, she said in the affirmative, adding, “We have no reason to doubt that at the moment.”

Russia’s first COVID-19 vaccine, Sat-V, was registered on August 11.
The vaccine is a human adenovirus vector vaccine, administered in two doses three weeks apart.

On December 14, the official website of “Sat-V” novel coronavirus vaccine announced that the efficacy of the novel coronavirus vaccine was 91.4% and could prevent 100% novel Coronavirus severe infection.

Start vaccination in many places!

Novel Coronavirus vaccine vaccination takes a “step by step” strategy. The first step is to vaccinate targeted at some key groups.

According to statistics, more than 1 million doses of COVID-19 vaccine have been administered nationwide since July this year.

Who are the priority groups for vaccination?
Who should be delayed?
Is it safe to get vaccinated?

File photo: Novel Coronavirus inactivated vaccine.
Photo taken by China News Service reporter Zhang Xinglong

Vaccination has been launched in many places

Public reports show that guangdong, Henan, Gansu, Chongqing, Shanghai, Shaanxi, Inner Mongolia and other places have started vaccination campaigns for key populations.
Liaoning will also start vaccination against COVID-19 in some key population groups from next week.

In Zhengzhou, Henan province, on 23 December, 50 cold-chain workers from Zhongyuan Aquatic Products Logistics Port were inoculated with novel Coronavirus vaccine, becoming the key group among the first batch of vaccine inoculation in Henan Province.
The vaccination of key population in Zhengzhou is expected to be completed in early February next year.

In Guangdong, 180,000 people have been vaccinated as of December 22, and there have been no serious adverse reactions so far.

In Shanghai, whole-virus inactivated vaccines are used.
The recommended immunization procedure is 2 needles with at least 14 days interval at the upper deltoid muscle.

The picture shows the novel Coronavirus vaccine inoculated against the novel coronavirus vaccine in Hohhot.
Hohhot No. 2 Hospital

Who are the key groups?

According to the national unified planning and deployment, novel Coronavirus vaccine vaccination adopts a “step by step” strategy.
As a first step, mainly for some key crowd immunization, focus groups, including engaged in imports of cold chain, port inspection and quarantine, ship pilotage, aviation flight, the fresh market, public transportation, medical treatment for disease control and the staff with high risk of infection, such as, as well as to the high-risk countries or regions to work or study.

With the conditional listing or official approval of the vaccine, the vaccination work of the general population will be rolled out in a comprehensive and orderly manner.
According to the briefing of the Joint prevention and Control mechanism of The State Council, After the outbreak of COVID-19, China has laid out five technical routes to promote vaccine research and development.
So far, according to the statistics of the World Health Organization, the vaccines that have entered clinical trials and those that have entered phase III clinical trials are among the first in the world.

Because the epidemic situation was brought under control earlier in China, China was not equipped to carry out phase III clinical trials. Therefore, all the five vaccines entered into phase III clinical trials in China were phase III clinical trials carried out abroad.

In what cases should COVID-19 vaccination be postponed?

In response to questions related to vaccination, the Shanghai CDC mentioned that at the present stage, it is recommended to postpone the vaccination of COVID-19 vaccine under the following circumstances:

Persons who are allergic to any component of the vaccine and have had a previous severe allergic reaction to the vaccine, such as acute allergic reaction, urticaria, eczema of the skin, dyspnea, angiogenic edema or abdominal pain;

Persons with fever, acute diseases, severe chronic diseases, or acute onset of chronic diseases;

Pregnant women and lactating women shall have a family planning within 3 months of inoculation;

A history or family history of convulsion, epilepsy, encephalopathy or mental illness;
Persons with uncontrolled epilepsy and other progressive neurological diseases, or with a history of Guillain-Barre syndrome;

Has been diagnosed with a congenital or acquired immune deficiency, HIV infection, lymphoma, leukemia or other autoimmune disease;

Known or suspected to be suffering from severe respiratory diseases, severe cardiovascular diseases, liver and kidney diseases, or malignant tumors;

Using immunomodulators such as anti-tumor drugs;

Have novel Coronavirus infection history;

Those considered unsuitable by clinicians or vaccination staff.

The specific instructions of the vaccine shall prevail.

Are vaccines safe?

National WeiJianWei medical health science and technology development and research center director Zheng Zhongwei said recently that in order to protect the people at high risk, in June, in accordance with the rules approved in accordance with the new vaccine emergency use, from July began a new vaccine inoculation work of emergency use, from July to now, on a voluntary, informed and agreed to under the premise of the high risk people exposed to have emergency vaccination, the cumulative has completed more than 100 doses of the new champions an emergency vaccination work, strict adverse drug reactions monitoring and tracking observation, no serious adverse reactions.

Should I continue to wear a mask after getting the COVID-19 vaccine?

The Shanghai Center for Disease Control and Prevention warned that vaccination can reduce the risk of infection to a certain extent, but the protection effect of any vaccine cannot reach 100 percent. A small number of people may still fail to produce protection or become ill after vaccination. When necessary, vaccinators should still cooperate with relevant departments for nucleic acid testing.
At present, the human immune barrier has not been established.
Therefore, personal protective measures such as wearing masks, washing hands frequently, opening Windows for ventilation, and maintaining a social distance should still be taken after vaccination.

Will the mutated virus render the vaccine ineffective?

Recently a novel mutation coronavirus emerged in The UK which has attracted worldwide attention.
Based on the information disclosed by who experts, health disease control experts and authoritative media, it is widely believed that the mutant strain has little impact on the vaccine and the public need not worry excessively.

Who health emergency project director Michael Ryan said in a press conference on December 21,, there is no any evidence of variation in the UK will be coronavirus will increase the severity of the disease, and no evidence of any mutation makes a higher virulence or erosion diagnosis method, the vaccine efficacy.

Most people respond to the vaccine by producing a series of antibodies that neutralise the virus by disrupting different parts of it, guardian analysis suggests.
So even though some of the antibodies produced by the vaccine may be rendered useless by mutations in the virus, others are unlikely to be affected.
Overall, the mutated virus is likely to have little impact on the vaccine.

On December 19, Wang Huaqing, chief expert and chief physician of immunization program of China CDC, said at the press conference of joint prevention and control mechanism of The State Council that the current research results showed that the novel Coronavirus mutation is within the normal range and has no effect on the vaccine effect.

alert! Multiple countries have found mutated new coronavirus infection

Following the confirmation of a mutated new coronavirus in the UK on the 14th of this month, many countries have recently announced the presence of confirmed cases of the mutated new coronavirus in their own borders.

France

On the evening of the 25th local time, the French Health Administration issued an announcement stating that the first case of mutated new coronavirus infection was confirmed in France on the same day, a French male living in the UK. The man returned to France from London, England, on the 19th of this month, and was diagnosed with the infection at the University Medical Center in Tours in the midwestern city of France on the 21st. It is reported that the man is asymptomatic and is currently isolated at home and is in good condition.

Lebanon

The Minister of Health of the Lebanese Caretaker Government, Hamad Hassan, said on the 25th local time that Lebanon had found the first case of infection with the mutated new crown virus. The case was a passenger who flew to Lebanon from the UK. Hamad Hassan called on passengers on the same plane to be vigilant, take all necessary precautions and be tested for the new crown virus as soon as possible.

Ireland

On the 25th local time, Ireland confirmed that the country had detected the mutant new coronavirus that had previously appeared in the UK. Experts said that Ireland will do further testing in the next few days or weeks to determine the extent of the mutated virus in the country.

Japan

The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan announced on the 25th that for the first time in Japan, a virus with the same genetic sequence as the mutant new coronavirus discovered in the United Kingdom has been confirmed. There are currently 5 people infected with this virus. It is understood that the five infected people arrived in Japan from the United Kingdom between December 18 and 21, and four of them were asymptomatic.

On the 26th, the Japanese government decided to further tighten border controls. Starting at 0:00 on the 26th, all passengers arriving in Japan from the United Kingdom and South Africa must undergo 14-day quarantine observation after entry, and those who need to go abroad must also be tested for the new coronavirus within 72 hours before departure and submit a certificate.

Germany

According to news from the Ministry of Health of the State of Baden-Württemberg, Germany on the 24th local time, the state has seen the first case of mutated new coronavirus infection in Germany. The confirmed case is a woman who returned to Baden-Württemberg via Frankfurt Airport on December 20th. Currently in home isolation.

Singapore

On the evening of the 23rd local time, the Ministry of Health of Singapore announced that a 17-year-old female citizen who had returned from the United Kingdom was carrying the mutant new coronavirus. The patient went to the UK to study in August this year and returned to Singapore on December 6. He developed fever during isolation.

△Singapore National Center for Infectious Diseases

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South Africa: Another mutant new coronavirus is found, which is more infectious

Recently, South Africa also reported the discovery of a variant strain of the new coronavirus. It is said that the mutant virus found in South Africa is different from the mutant virus found in the UK. South Africa’s Health Minister Mukez said that this virus is more contagious and has become the most important virus confirmed in the country.

The second wave of the epidemic has put heavy pressure on the South African medical system. Many hospitals are facing a shortage of beds. The shortage of beds in intensive care units is particularly serious. For this reason, the hospital had to temporarily adjust the beds and medical staff, and postponed a large number of non-emergency operations.

The director of the African Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Ken Gesong, announced on the 24th that after South Africa, Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa, has also detected a new variant of a suspected new coronavirus, but it needs more time for further verification. If confirmed, it will be the latest variant discovered following the discovery of the new coronavirus mutant in the UK and South Africa.

The more infectious mutated new coronavirus appeared in the UK! Does it affect the effectiveness of the vaccine?

According to comprehensive reports, the mutated new coronavirus that has recently emerged in the UK has caused related infections in many countries, causing concern. On the 23rd local time, the British Health Minister revealed that another mutant virus was found in the country, which is more infectious.

However, WHO officials said that the virus mutation will not affect some of the new coronavirus tests; many pharmaceutical manufacturers in the United States and Germany also expressed confidence in the vaccine developed and are currently undergoing related tests.

On December 21, local time, during the rush hour commuting in London, England, there were only a few passengers wearing masks on the subway.

Contagious or stronger!

Another mutant new coronavirus appears in the UK

Recently, the mutation of the new coronavirus in the UK is attracting increasing attention. On the 23rd local time, the Israeli Ministry of Health stated that four cases of mutated virus infection in the United Kingdom had been found in the country.

On the same day, British Health Secretary Matthew Hancock said that following the previous discovery of a mutant new coronavirus, another mutant new coronavirus was discovered in the UK. The new mutant virus is “very worrying” because it is more spreading and seems to have a deeper degree of mutation than the previous mutant virus. British experts are in-depth analysis.

According to reports, two people in the United Kingdom were infected with this new mutant virus after being in contact with travelers from South Africa. The British government has quarantined patients and their close contacts, and has imposed restrictions on travel related to South Africa. People who have been to South Africa in the past two weeks and their close contacts must be isolated immediately.

At the same time, a mutated virus discovered in South Africa is considered to be the “culprit” of the rapid spread of the country’s recent epidemic. Scientists in South Africa believe that this mutant virus may be more contagious, may have a greater impact on young people, and may be slightly more resistant to vaccines.

On December 8, local time, the United Kingdom began vaccinating the new crown vaccine. Priority will be given to vaccinations for nursing home staff, people over 80, and frontline medical and social workers.

Mutated virus affects vaccine effectiveness?

Multiple drugmakers will conduct additional tests

Does the mutant virus affect the existing detection reagents?

On the 21st local time, Maria Van Kokhoff, the technical director of the WHO Health Emergency Project, said that some mutations of the virus appeared in the spike protein. At present, most detection tools target multiple targets in the gene sequence. Affect this type of detection. However, a small number of tests only target a single target on the viral gene sequence. Such tests may be affected by virus mutation.

So, will the mutant virus affect the effectiveness of the vaccine?

In this regard, American drugmakers Pfizer and Modena, and German biopharmaceutical company CureVac, etc. stated that the vaccine they developed should be sufficient to effectively deal with the variant virus strains emerging in the UK. Related tests are currently underway and results will be available within a few weeks.

The British pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca also said that it is investigating the impact of the virus mutation, but the company does not believe that the effectiveness of the vaccine will be affected.

However, as well as the issue of vaccine effectiveness, there is also the issue of vaccine safety. On the 23rd local time, the New York City Health Department issued a statement stating that a medical staff in New York City had a serious adverse reaction after being vaccinated with the new crown vaccine.

Previously, medical staff in Alaska and Tennessee in the United States were exposed to adverse reactions after being vaccinated with the new crown vaccine jointly developed by the United States and German companies. Officials from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases said that they would conduct research on this.

A new variant of the British virus! Twelve countries have announced emergency response measures

The latest who real-time statistics show that as of 0:34 Beijing time on December 21, there have been 75110,651 confirmed cases of COVID-19 worldwide and 1680,395 deaths.
The number of confirmed COVID-19 cases around the world reached 808,224 on Tuesday, the highest number of new cases in a single day since the outbreak began.

On December 20 local time, the Department of Health and Social Care announced that there had been 35,928 new confirmed cases of COVID-19 in the UK in the past 24 hours.
Currently, 265 people in the UK per 100,000 population have been diagnosed with COVID-19.
The novel Coronavirus is related to the novel coronavirus.

UK says virus spread out of Control as crowds flee London

A mutation of a novel Coronavirus is spreading faster in London and southeast England than the original found virus, the UK government said.
The British Health Secretary, Mr Thomas Hancock, said on The 20th that the mutation Coronavirus epidemic had got out of hand.

On December 19 local time, British Prime Minister Boris Johnson announced that London, southeast England and the East of England will be raised from the current level 3 level of prevention and control to the highest level of four for two weeks from December 20.

02:03
About 16.4 million people, or about a third of England’s population, are currently at level 4.
At this level, “non-essential” retail stores, entertainment facilities and fitness centers will be closed.
Except in a few cases, such as buying daily necessities, people should stay at home as much as possible. People are not allowed to gather with people other than their families except for special reasons. People are not allowed to enter or leave areas where level 4 prevention and control is applied.

Schematic diagram of Epidemic prevention level in Britain, the darkest area is level 4 lockdown area, mainly in London and surrounding cities.

In London, people rushed to the railway station Wednesday night to flee the capital ahead of the British government’s decision to raise the level of prevention and control.

△ Sign on the Border with England: “Wales has closed and gone Home to You!”

One person posted on social media that the train leaving London that night was “full” and “hard to get a ticket”.
Hancock on Tuesday criticised those “rushing out of London” as “irresponsible”.

00:56
Who: Confirmed cases related to mutation Coronavirus have been confirmed in many countries

The WORLD Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe confirmed on Wednesday that at least three countries outside the UK have found confirmed cases related to the novel Coronavirus. Among them, 9 cases appeared in Denmark, 1 case each in the Netherlands and 1 case each in Australia.
Who calls on countries in the European region to tighten their epidemic prevention measures and countries around the world to step up screening sequencing on coronavirus and timely notification of relevant information.

Who also said, attention has been paid to the “early signs” Britain began to appear in September the mutation will be coronavirus “spread faster from person to person”, and some could affect the accuracy of diagnostic tests, but there is no evidence that the mutation of fatality rate higher, or can lead to more serious symptoms.

A number of countries are urgently announcing their response measures

Novel Coronavirus new variety in response to novel Coronavirus has been urgently announced by many countries to close their borders and cancel flights to and from the UK.

S in the Netherlands,

The Dutch government has banned flights from the UK from December 20 until January 1, local time.
The Netherlands earlier this month found the same strain in a sample of a COVID-19 case as the UK.

S Belgium

On December 20, local time, Belgian Prime Minister Deklow announced that from that day on, the border between Belgium and the UK will be temporarily closed.
The border closure will last for at least 24 hours, starting at midnight on Sunday, and flights and Eurostar trains between the two countries will be suspended.

S Italy

On December 20 local time, Italian Foreign Minister Di Maio said that after informing the British government, the Italian government will sign the relevant decree to stop all flights to and from the UK.

S French

France has banned flights, trains and ferries from the UK for 48 hours from midnight on December 20, transport minister Jean-Baptiste Jebali said on Monday.

French media quoted the Elysee Palace, the French presidential palace, said that as soon as 22 days from the Return of the British holiday in France will be tested for virus.

S Spanish

Spain will step up nucleic acid tests at its airports and ports for people arriving from the UK, the government said in a statement on Monday.
Currently, Spain requires travellers from countries or regions at high risk of COVID-19 to show negative COVID-19 tests within the past 72 hours, but the Spanish government will not close its border with the UK for the time being.

S Kuwait

On December 20 local time, Kuwait’s civil aviation authority issued a statement, saying that after coordination with the health authorities, the civil aviation authority of Kuwait decided to suspend the flights from Kuwait to the UK and put the UK on the list of countries at high risk of the outbreak.
Kuwait was also the first Arab country to declare a no-fly zone over Britain.

△ Kuwait Airport

S Austria

Austria plans to ban flights from the UK from landing in the country on December 20 local time, according to Austrian state broadcaster NTT.

The Austrian Ministry of Health stresses that British travellers arriving in the country must undergo a 10-day isolation. If a novel Coronavirus test results negative after 5 days of isolation can be released.

S Portugal

On December 20, local time, the Portuguese government announced that starting from 0:00 on December 21, passengers holding Portuguese nationality or residence permit will only be allowed to enter Portugal from the United Kingdom, and they must present the novel Coronavirus test negative upon arrival.
On arrival, passengers unable to produce a negative test must have a novel Coronavirus test performed by a specialist at the airport and quarantined under the guidance of the Health Department.

S Turkey

Turkey will suspend commercial flights to and from the UK, The Netherlands, Denmark and South Africa until further notice, the Turkish Civil Aviation Authority announced on December 20 local time.

S Swiss

Switzerland has suspended air traffic with the UK and South Africa from midnight until further notice, the Federal Civil Aviation Authority announced on Monday.

S Greek

The Greek Ministry of Civil Protection announced on December 20 that from 6:00 am on December 21, all people from the UK entering Greece will have to be quarantined for 7 days.
People from other countries will still have to abide by the original rules, which force them to be quarantined for three days after entering Greece.

Baggage claim Hall at Athens International Airport

■ Bulgaria

On December 20 local time, Bulgarian Health Minister Andrei Angelov announced that all persons from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, including Bulgarians, must be quarantined for 10 days after entering Bulgaria.