Is there a descendant of salmon in novel Coronavirus? There are certain facts

On the evening of 12 June, Beijing Xinfandi Wholesale Market confirmed that after novel Coronavirus was detected from the chopping irus on the sampled salmon, the trouble came.
First, all salmon were removed from shelves in major shopping malls and supermarkets in Beijing overnight. The products were mainly imported and novel coronavirus nucleic acid test was done for more than 10,000 employees involved in the sales of salmon.

Existing research suggests that fish harbor unknown viruses

Two questions are involved here. One is whether a salmon is a carrier or a host of a novel coronavirus?
Another question is whether the novel Coronavirus it carries will spread to humans even if the salmon is the host of a novel Coronavirus?

▲ Should salmon carry the pot
Salmon may not end up in the same situation as the civet massacre in 2003, but it could have serious consequences for the lack of consumption of the fish and the consequences for the production, fishing and marketing of salmon.

However, the salmon should be on the back of the pot.
It is safe to say that to date no fish has been the result of a study that has novel Coronavirus carriers, nor has there been a case of virus transmission from fish to human.
Therefore, it is doubtful whether salmon will carry a coronavirus or a transmission novel Coronavirus, that is, it can only be confirmed by future studies.

It should be clarified whether the novel Coronavirus found on the cutting board of the imported salmon came from a salmon, or whether it came from an ingredient such as another fish or meat, or whether it was transmitted to the board from a food marketer.

Now, Beijing CDC has a response that novel Coronavirus was not found on all imported salmon boards. Therefore, the answer to this question still needs investigation and research. For example, a novel Coronavirus can only be confirmed when it is found from the salmon sample in Beijing Xinfa Wholesale market or other food sample.

However, existing research also suggests that fish do have a large number of microbes, including viruses and parasites.

Researchers have identified 214 new RNA viruses in fish and frogs, according to a 2018 nature article, and they have evolved with vertebrates dating back millions of years.

The research means that fish have long harbours unknown viruses, and that viruses can evolve.
Meanwhile, since novel Coronavirus is also an RNA virus, it has similarities with RNA viruses in fish.
Team of more than 186 aquatic species of RNA was tested, from various tissues and organs to extract the RNA, and making use of the characteristic of RNA viruses generated 80.6 billion bases sequence, finally discovered 214 kinds of virus can be directly infected vertebrates, or that more than 200 kinds of virus can cause other infectious diseases, 24% these viruses which exists in the same individual in different organizations.

Can microorganisms in aquatic animals infect humans?

So can microbes from aquatic animals infect land animals and humans?

The answer is partly yes.

First of all, there are some human and fish comorbiditis (belonging to zoonoses), mainly transmitted by parasites, bacteria.
Merman comorbidities include various diseases caused by Vibrio enteritis, tapeworm, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio cholerae, Bacillus thuringiensis and nematodes, and some serious diseases, such as cholera, may also endanger human life.

For example, turtle tanks contaminated with Vibrio cholerae can infect people with cholera from eating contaminated turtles, and in severe cases, kill them.
Another well-known merman comorbidiasis is tapeworm caused by diphyllobothrium latum.
Adult worms live in the human small intestine, causing intestinal disorders and red blood cell anemia.
Then, the eggs are excreted with feces and incubated in the water. The carcasses are swallowed by daphnia magna and develop into protocercariae in the body cavity of daphnia magna.
When the infected saphnia magna is eaten by freshwater fish, the protocercariae can develop into metacercaria in the fish.
Humans can also become infected by ingesting undercooked metacercaria infected fish.

Another common merman parasitic disease is caused by the larvae of angiostrongylus elegans.

The larvae of this nematode worm are widespread in mollusks such as freshwater fish, shrimp and freshwater snails.
The adults live mainly in the blood vessels of the lungs of rats and mice. People can become infected by eating raw or immature freshwater fish, shrimp and snails that contain larvae.
However, the larvae of angionematodes do not develop into adult worms in human body, but migrate in the form of larvae, causing severe damage to tissues and organs at the site of migration. Moreover, the larvae mainly invade the central nervous system of human beings, thus often causing eosinophilic meningitis.

Of course, these are just bacteria and parasites that cause illness in both fish and humans, and that are transmitted from fish to humans.

Can viruses in fish spread disease?

Is there a disease that can be transmitted from a virus in fish to humans?
Researchers have found more than 200 RNA viruses in fish, but so far fish viruses have been shown to cause few illnesses in people.

In 1988, there was a major outbreak of hepatitis A in Shanghai, which was caused by the consumption of raw cockle cockles contaminated by hepatitis A virus. The epidemic caused 310,746 infections and 31 deaths, causing collective panic among The Shanghai people.
And hepatitis A virus can live in the hair cockles, because the hair cockles are filter feeding shellfish, a shellfish can filter water up to 10 liters per day, its food is a variety of dialgae.
If the living waters of the cockles cockles are polluted, the cockles cockles can enrich themselves with hepatitis A virus after they eat food, thereby infecting people.

▲ The hair cockle is a filter feeding shellfish
And, no matter be land live or sea live hair cockle, hair cockle is in its cheek flap filtration and concentrated extremely high armour liver virus, than the armour liver virus concentration in water (load) want to tall dozens of times.
At that time, the investigation found that there were hepatitis A virus in the hair cockle granosa in the waters around Qidong Small Temple Hong.

In September 1987, when the channel of the Yangtze Estuary was fully dredged, a wild rich area of MAO Cockles was accidentally discovered in qidong Section of the River, which had been polluted by feces for a long time.
By the end of 1987, a large number of Qidong tegillarca granosa had entered Shanghai’s vegetable market, resulting in the outbreak of Hepatitis A in Shanghai.

It follows that fish with gill flaps can also be enriched with HEPATITIS A virus and other viruses, and thus spread disease.

Novel Coronavirus can also spread through aquatic animals!

So, do fish, especially salmon, have the function of novel Coronavirus?
There’s no research to prove it.
Based on existing research, researchers are skeptical and negative.

Early May 2020, at university college London (UCL) team in preprint platform bioRxiv published a paper analyzes 215 vertebrate species of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 protein (ACE2 protein will be coronavirus invasion cell receptors) homologue and cell serine protease protein (TMPRSS2, can activate will be coronavirus spines protein to invade human cells) homologue and will effect between coronavirus, draw the conclusion: in mammals, will be coronavirus is hard to infection, fish, birds and reptiles.

Novel Coronavirus belongs to the genus coronavirus, and previous studies have shown that coronavirus only infects mammals.
Novel Coronavirus’s spines protein (S protein) mainly binds to ACE2 receptor on respiratory cells and invades human respiratory system. However, fish do not have lungs (except lungfish), so fish are not susceptible to infection with the virus.

However, these studies only answer one question. Just because a fish does not have lungs that are less likely to be infected with a novel Coronavirus does not mean that a fish or aquatic animal will not carry a novel Coronavirus.

As previous studies have shown, bats can carry a myriad of viruses, including several strains of coronavirus alone, but they don’t get sick.
Is it also true that salmon can carry coVID-19 or other viruses, as well as other bacteria and parasites, but do not get sick themselves, only causing people to get sick?

Reality has also shown that novel Coronavirus can also spread to people.

In April 2020, a mink breeder in the Netherlands contracted avirus from a Novel Coronavirus. At that time, it was not suspected that the virus had been transmitted by a mink.
It was not until the end of April, when more than 2 per cent of ferrets died from viruses on one Farm in the Netherlands and more than 1 per cent died on another farm, that they were suspected as the source of infection.

▲ Dermott, Netherlands, discovered a mink infected with a Novel Coronavirus
On 19 May, the Government of the Netherlands clearly reported two cases of animal-to-human transmission, in which the virus in a worker at a mink farm was similar to the virus found in minks at the farm and was therefore confirmed to be mink-to-human.

It is also the only known case of animal-to-human transmission since the global coVID-19 outbreak began.
Novel Coronavirus was found on dogs and cats before, but it could not be confirmed whether it was passed from person to animal or from animal to animal.

This has also caused real damage to minks, just as it did to Chinese civet cats in 2003.
On June 9, a farm in the southern Dutch town of De Mortel gamed 10,000 female minks and about 50,000 baby minks out of fear that a novel Coronavirus might infect people.

▲ Dutch authorities cull minks from Dermott farms
According to Pieter Jacobs, who oversees the culling at the Dutch Food and Goods Agency, 75,000 female minks and 300,000 baby minks will be culled from 10 farms in the Netherlands.
Carcasses will be transported in sealed containers to treatment centres and disinfected at the farms.
The Dutch Supreme Court has ruled that all of the country’s approximately 140 mink farms will be closed by 2024.

Whether salmon and other fish are novel Coronavirus hosts, whether they are novel coronavirus hosts at source or in the middle, and whether they are transmitted from salmon to human needs to be confirmed by future studies.

According to previous research and common sense, across species parasitic sick is not easy for different species of microbes, but the emergence of the beast comorbidities also let people vigilant, perhaps salmon or other aquatic animals may let a person suffering from COVID – 19, so, will expand and expand people’s will be coronavirus and COVID – 19 of cognition, and thus to overcome the infectious disease to provide more scientific basis.

All questions related to salmon will be answered by future research and investigation.
However, salmon can still be eaten, but it has to be well cooked.

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